The Tech to Timestamp Data in Bitcoin’s Blockchain Has ...

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset

Blockchain

Main article: Blockchain
The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records), called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[23][26] Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block,[26] a timestamp and transaction data.[27] By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".[28] For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.
Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain.[29] Blockchains solve the double-spendingproblem without the need of a trusted authority or central server), assuming no 51% attack (that has worked against several cryptocurrencies).

Timestamping

Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party.
The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scrypt.[16]
Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake), SHA-3, and X11#X11).
The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency. It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions. The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme.[16]

Mining

📷Hashcoin mine
In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network. The rate of generating hashes, which validate any transaction, has been increased by the use of specialized machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running complex hashing algorithms like SHA-256 and Scrypt.[30] This arms race for cheaper-yet-efficient machines has been on since the day the first cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was introduced in 2009.[30] With more people venturing into the world of virtual currency, generating hashes for this validation has become far more complex over the years, with miners having to invest large sums of money on employing multiple high performance ASICs. Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the enormous amount of heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them.[30][31]
Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block). A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work.
As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada.[32] One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices.[33] In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining.[34] According to a February 2018 report from Fortune,[35] Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity. Prices are contained because nearly all of the country's energy comes from renewable sources, prompting more mining companies to consider opening operations in Iceland.[citation needed]
In March 2018, a town in Upstate New York put an 18-month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city.[36]

GPU price rise

An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand of graphics cards (GPU) in 2017.[37] Popular favorites of cryptocurrency miners such as Nvidia's GTX 1060 and GTX 1070 graphics cards, as well as AMD's RX 570 and RX 580 GPUs, doubled or tripled in price – or were out of stock.[38] A GTX 1070 Ti which was released at a price of $450 sold for as much as $1100. Another popular card GTX 1060's 6 GB model was released at an MSRP of $250, sold for almost $500. RX 570 and RX 580 cards from AMD were out of stock for almost a year. Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU's as soon as they are available.[39]
Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. "Gamers come first for Nvidia," said Boris Böhles, PR manager for Nvidia in the German region.[40]

Wallets

📷An example paper printable bitcoin wallet consisting of one bitcoin address for receiving and the corresponding private key for spendingMain article: Cryptocurrency wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency. With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet.

Anonymity

Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or "addresses").[41] Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.
Additions such as Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.[42][43]
submitted by TheResearcher012 to GreatLifePostsGoTeam [link] [comments]

World History Timeline of Events Leading up to Bitcoin - In the Making

A (live/editable) timeline of historical events directly or indirectly related to the creation of Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
*still workin' on this so check back later and more will be added, if you have any suggested dates/events feel free to lemme know...
This timeline includes dates pertaining to:
Ancient Bartering – first recorded in Egypt (resources, services...) – doesn’t scale
Tally sticks were used, making notches in bones or wood, as a form of money of account
9000-6000 BC Livestock considered the first form of currency
c3200 BC Clay tablets used in Uruk (Iraq) for accounting (believed to be the earliest form of writing)
3000 BC Grain is used as a currency, measured out in Shekels
3000 BC Banking developed in Mesopotamia
3000 BC? Punches used to stamp symbols on coins were a precursor to the printing press and modern coins
? BC Since ancient Persia and all the way up until the invention and expansion of the telegraph Homing Pigeons were used to carry messages
2000 BC Merchants in Assyria, India and Sumeria lent grain to farmers and traders as a precursor to banks
1700 BC In Babylon at the time of Hammurabi, in the 18th century BC, there are records of loans made by the priests of the temple.
1200 BC Shell money first used in China
1000-600 BC Crude metal coins first appear in China
640 BC Precious metal coins – Gold & Silver first used in ancient Lydia and coastal Greek cities featuring face to face heads of a bull and a lion – first official minted currency made from electrum, a mixture of gold and silver
600-500 BC Atbash Cipher
A substitution Cipher used by ancient Hebrew scholars mapping the alphabet in reverse, for example, in English an A would be a Z, B a Y etc.
400 BC Skytale used by Sparta
474 BC Hundreds of gold coins from this era were discovered in Rome in 2018
350 BC Greek hydraulic semaphore system, an optical communication system developed by Aeneas Tacticus.
c200 BC Polybius Square
??? Wealthy stored coins in temples, where priests also lent them out
??? Rome was the first to create banking institutions apart from temples
118 BC First banknote in the form of 1 foot sq pieces of white deerskin
100-1 AD Caesar Cipher
193 Aureus, a gold coin of ancient Rome, minted by Septimius Severus
324 Solidus, pure gold coin, minted under Constantine’s rule, lasted until the late 8th century
600s Paper currency first developed in Tang Dynasty China during the 7th century, although true paper money did not appear until the 11th century, during the Song Dynasty, 960–1279
c757–796 Silver pennies based on the Roman denarius became the staple coin of Mercia in Great Britain around the time of King Offa
806 First paper banknotes used in China but isn’t widely accepted in China until 960
1024 The first series of standard government notes were issued in 1024 with denominations like 1 guàn (貫, or 700 wén), 1 mín (緡, or 1000 wén), up to 10 guàn. In 1039 only banknotes of 5 guàn and 10 guàn were issued, and in 1068 a denomination of 1 guàn was introduced which became forty percent of all circulating Jiaozi banknotes.
1040 The first movable type printer was invented in China and made of porcelain
? Some of the earliest forms of long distance communication were drums used by Native Africans and smoke signals used by Native Americans and Chinese
1088 Movable type in Song Dynasty China
1120 By the 1120s the central government officially stepped in and produced their own state-issued paper money (using woodblock printing)
1150 The Knights Templar issued bank notes to pilgrims. Pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received a document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds in an amount of treasure of equal value.
1200s-1300s During the 13th century bankers from north Italy, collectively known as Lombards, gradually replace the Jews in their traditional role as money-lenders to the rich and powerful. – Florence, Venice and Genoa - The Bardi and Peruzzi Families dominated banking in 14th century Florence, establishing branches in many other parts of Europe
1200 By the time Marco Polo visited China they’d move from coins to paper money, who introduced the concept to Europe. An inscription warned, "All counterfeiters will be decapitated." Before the use of paper, the Chinese used coins that were circular, with a rectangular hole in the middle. Several coins could be strung together on a rope. Merchants in China, if they became rich enough, found that their strings of coins were too heavy to carry around easily. To solve this problem, coins were often left with a trustworthy person, and the merchant was given a slip of paper recording how much money they had with that person. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan Dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
1252 Florin minted in Florence, becomes the hard currency of its day helping Florence thrive economically
1340 Double-entry bookkeeping - The clerk keeping the accounts for the Genoese firm of Massari painstakingly fills in the ledger for the year 1340.
1397 Medici Bank established
1450 Johannes Gutenberg builds the printing press – printed words no longer just for the rich
1455 Paper money disappears from China
1466 Polyalphabetic Cipher
1466 Rotating cipher disks – Vatican – greatest crypto invention in 1000 yrs – the first system to challenge frequency analysis
1466 First known mechanical cipher machine
1472 The oldest bank still in existence founded, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena, headquartered in Siena, Italy
1494 Double-entry bookkeeping system codified by Luca Pacioli
1535 Wampum, a form of currency used by Native Americans, a string of beads made from clamshells, is first document.
1553 Vigenere Cipher
1557 Phillip II of Spain managed to burden his kingdom with so much debt (as the result of several pointless wars) that he caused the world's first national bankruptcy — as well as the world's second, third and fourth, in rapid succession.
1577 Newspaper in Korea
1586 The Babington Plot
1590 Cabinet Noir was established in France. Its mission was to open, read and reseal letters, and great expertise was developed in the restoration of broken seals. In the knowledge that mail was being opened, correspondents began to develop systems to encrypt and decrypt their letters. The breaking of these codes gave birth to modern systematic scientific code breaking.
1600s Promissory banknotes began in London
1600s By the early 17th century banking begins also to exist in its modern sense - as a commercial service for customers rather than kings. – Late 17th century we see cheques slowly gains acceptance
The total of the money left on deposit by a bank's customers is a large sum, only a fraction of which is usually required for withdrawals. A proportion of the rest can be lent out at interest, bringing profit to the bank. When the customers later come to realize this hidden value of their unused funds, the bank's profit becomes the difference between the rates of interest paid to depositors and demanded from debtors.
The transformation from moneylenders into private banks is a gradual one during the 17th and 18th centuries. In England it is achieved by various families of goldsmiths who early in the period accept money on deposit purely for safe-keeping. Then they begin to lend some of it out. Finally, by the 18th century, they make banking their business in place of their original craft as goldsmiths.
1605 Newspaper in Straussburg
c1627 Great Cipher
1637 Wampum is declared as legal tender in the U.S. (where we got the slang word “clams” for money)
1656 Johan Palmstruch establishes the Stockholm Banco
1661 Paper Currency reappears in Europe, soon became common - The goldsmith-bankers of London began to give out the receipts as payable to the bearer of the document rather than the original depositor
1661 Palmstruch issues credit notes which can be exchanged, on presentation to his bank, for a stated number of silver coins
1666 Stockholms Banco, the predecessor to the Central Bank of Sweden issues the first paper money in Europe. Soon went bankrupt for printing too much money.
1667 He issues more notes than his bank can afford to redeem with silver and winds up in disgrace, facing a death penalty (commuted to imprisonment) for fraud.
1668 Bank of Sweden – today the 2nd oldest surviving bank
1694 First Central Bank established in the UK was the first bank to initiate the permanent issue of banknotes
Served as model for most modern central banks.
The modern banknote rests on the assumption that money is determined by a social and legal consensus. A gold coin's value is simply a reflection of the supply and demand mechanism of a society exchanging goods in a free market, as opposed to stemming from any intrinsic property of the metal. By the late 17th century, this new conceptual outlook helped to stimulate the issue of banknotes.
1700s Throughout the commercially energetic 18th century there are frequent further experiments with bank notes - deriving from a recognized need to expand the currency supply beyond the availability of precious metals.
1710 Physiocracy
1712 First commercial steam engine
1717 Master of the Royal Mint Sir Isaac Newton established a new mint ratio between silver and gold that had the effect of driving silver out of circulation (bimetalism) and putting Britain on a gold standard.
1735 Classical Economics – markets regulate themselves when free of intervention
1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild, Founder of the Rothschild Banking Empire, is Born in Frankfurt, Germany
Mayer Amschel Rothschild extended his banking empire across Europe by carefully placing his five sons in key positions. They set up banks in Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris. By the mid 1800’s they dominated the banking industry, lending to governments around the world and people such as the Vanderbilts, Carnegies, and Cecil Rhodes.
1745 There was a gradual move toward the issuance of fixed denomination notes in England standardized printed notes ranging from £20 to £1,000 were being printed.
1748 First recorded use of the word buck for a dollar, stemming from the Colonial period in America when buck skins were commonly traded
1757 Colonial Scrip Issued in US
1760s Mayer Amschel Rothschild establishes his banking business
1769 First steam powered car
1775-1938 US Diplomatic Codes & Ciphers by Ralph E Weber used – problems were security and distribution
1776 American Independence
1776 Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand theory helped bankers and money-lenders limit government interference in the banking sector
1781 The Bank of North America was a private bank first adopted created the US Nation's first de facto central bank. When shares in the bank were sold to the public, the Bank of North America became the country's first initial public offering. It lasted less than ten years.
1783 First steamboat
1791 Congress Creates the First US Bank – A Private Company, Partly Owned by Foreigners – to Handle the Financial Needs of the New Central Government. First Bank of the United States, a National bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, it was not renewed in 1811.
Previously, the 13 states had their own banks, currencies and financial institutions, which had an average lifespan of about 5 years.
1792 First optical telegraph invented where towers with telescopes were dispersed across France 12-25 km apart, relaying signals according to positions of arms extended from the top of the towers.
1795 Thomas Jefferson invents the Jefferson Disk Cipher or Wheel Cipher
1797 to 1821 Restriction Period by England of trading banknotes for silver during Napoleonic Wars
1797 Currency Crisis
Although the Bank was originally a private institution, by the end of the 18th century it was increasingly being regarded as a public authority with civic responsibility toward the upkeep of a healthy financial system.
1799 First paper machine
1800 Banque de France – France’s central bank opens to try to improve financing of the war
1800 Invention of the battery
1801 Rotchschild Dynasty begins in Frankfurt, Holy Roman Empire – established international banking family through his 5 sons who established themselves in London, Paris, Frankfurt, Vienna, and Naples
1804 Steam locomotive
1807 Internal combustion engine and automobile
1807 Robert Fulton expands water transportation and trade with the workable steamboat.
1809 Telegraphy
1811 First powered printing press, also first to use a cylinder
1816 The Privately Owned Second Bank of the US was Chartered – It Served as the Main Depository for Government Revenue, Making it a Highly Profitable Bank – charter not renewed in 1836
1816 The first working telegraph was built using static electricity
1816 Gold becomes the official standard of value in England
1820 Industrial Revolution
c1820 Neoclassical Economics
1821 British gov introduces the gold standard - With governments issuing the bank notes, the inherent danger is no longer bankruptcy but inflation.
1822 Charles Babbage, considered the "father of the computer", begins building the first programmable mechanical computer.
1832 Andrew Jackson Campaigns Against the 2nd Bank of the US and Vetoes Bank Charter Renewal
Andrew Jackson was skeptical of the central banking system and believed it gave too few men too much power and caused inflation. He was also a proponent of gold and silver and an outspoken opponent of the 2nd National Bank. The Charter expired in 1836.
1833 President Jackson Issues Executive Order to Stop Depositing Government Funds Into Bank of US
By September 1833, government funds were being deposited into state chartered banks.
1833-1837 Manufactured “boom” created by central bankers – money supply Increases 84%, Spurred by the 2nd Bank of the US
The total money supply rose from $150 million to $267 million
1835 Jackson Escapes Assassination. Assassin misfired twice.
1837-1862 The “Free Banking Era” there was no formal central bank in the US, and banks issued their own notes again
1838 First Telegram sent using Morse Code across 3 km, in 1844 he sent a message across 71 km from Washington DC to Baltimore.
1843 Ada Lovelace published the first algorithm for computing
1844 Modern central bank of England established - meaning only the central bank of England could issue banknotes – prior to that commercial banks could issue their own and were the primary form of currency throughout England
the Bank of England was restricted to issue new banknotes only if they were 100% backed by gold or up to £14 million in government debt.
1848 Communist Manifesto
1850 The first undersea telegraphic communications cable connected France in England after latex produced from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree in 1845 was proposed as insulation for the underwater cables.
1852 Many countries in Europe build telegram networks, however post remained the primary means of communication to distant countries.
1855 In England fully printed notes that did not require the name of the payee and the cashier's signature first appeared
1855 The printing telegraph made it possible for a machine with 26 alphabetic keys to print the messages automatically and was soon adopted worldwide.
1856 Belgian engineer Charles Bourseul proposed telephony
1856 The Atlantic Telegraph company was formed in London to stretch a commercial telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, completed in 1866.
1860 The Pony Express was founded, able to deliver mail of wealthy individuals or government officials from coast to coast in 10 days.
1861 The East coast was connected to the West when Western Union completed the transcontinental telegraph line, putting an end to unprofitable The Pony Express.
1862-1863 First US banknotes - Lincoln Over Rules Debt-Based Money and Issues Greenbacks to Fund Civil War
Bankers would only lend the government money under certain conditions and at high interest rates, so Lincoln issued his own currency – “greenbacks” – through the US Treasury, and made them legal tender. His soldiers went on to win the war, followed by great economic expansion.
1863 to 1932 “National Banking Era” Commercial banks in the United States had legally issued banknotes before there was a national currency; however, these became subject to government authorization from 1863 to 1932
1864 Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen founded the first rural credit union in Heddesdorf (now part of Neuwied) in Germany. By the time of Raiffeisen's death in 1888, credit unions had spread to Italy, France, the Netherlands, England, Austria, and other nations
1870 Long-distance telegraph lines connected Britain and India.
c1871 Marginalism - The doctrines of marginalism and the Marginal Revolution are often interpreted as a response to the rise of the worker's movement, Marxian economics and the earlier (Ricardian) socialist theories of the exploitation of labour.
1871 Carl Menger’s Principles of Economics – Austrian School
1872 Marx’s Das Capital
1872 Australia becomes the first nation to be connected to the rest of the world via submarine telegraph cables.
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, first called the electric speech machine – revolutionized communication
1877 Thomas Edison – Phonograph
1878 Western Union, the leading telegraph provider of the U.S., begins to lose out to the telephone technology of the National Bell Telephone Company.
1881 President James Garfield, Staunch Proponent of “Honest Money” Backed by Gold and Silver, was Assassinated
Garfield opposed fiat currency (money that was not backed by any physical object). He had the second shortest Presidency in history.
1882 First description of the one-time pad
1886 First gas powered car
1888 Ballpoint pen
1892 Cinematograph
1895 System of wireless communication using radio waves
1896 First successful intercontinental telegram
1898 Polyethylene
1899 Nickel-cadmium battery
1907 Banking Panic of 1907
The New York Stock Exchange dropped dramatically as everyone tried to get their money out of the banks at the same time across the nation. This banking panic spurred debate for banking reform. JP Morgan and others gathered to create an image of concern and stability in the face of the panic, which eventually led to the formation of the Federal Reserve. The founders of the Federal Reserve pretended like the bankers were opposed to the idea of its formation in order to mislead the public into believing that the Federal Reserve would help to regulate bankers when in fact it really gave even more power to private bankers, but in a less transparent way.
1908 St Mary’s Bank – first credit union in US
1908 JP Morgan Associate and Rockefeller Relative Nelson Aldrich Heads New National Monetary Commission
Senate Republican leader, Nelson Aldrich, heads the new National Monetary Commission that was created to study the cause of the banking panic. Aldrich had close ties with J.P. Morgan and his daughter married John D. Rockefeller.
1910 Bankers Meet Secretly on Jekyll Island to Draft Federal Reserve Banking Legislation
Over the course of a week, some of the nation’s most powerful bankers met secretly off the coast of Georgia, drafting a proposal for a private Central Banking system.
1913 Federal Reserve Act Passed
Two days before Christmas, while many members of Congress were away on vacation, the Federal Reserve Act was passed, creating the Central banking system we have today, originally with gold backed Federal Reserve Notes. It was based on the Aldrich plan drafted on Jekyll Island and gave private bankers supreme authority over the economy. They are now able to create money out of nothing (and loan it out at interest), make decisions without government approval, and control the amount of money in circulation.
1913 Income tax established -16th Amendment Ratified
Taxes ensured that citizens would cover the payment of debt due to the Central Bank, the Federal Reserve, which was also created in 1913.The 16th Amendment stated: “The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”
1914 November, Federal Reserve Banks Open
JP Morgan and Co. Profits from Financing both sides of War and Purchasing Weapons
J.P. Morgan and Co. made a deal with the Bank of England to give them a monopoly on underwriting war bonds for the UK and France. They also invested in the suppliers of war equipment to Britain and France.
1914 WWI
1917 Teletype cipher
1917 The one-time pad
1917 Zimmerman Telegram intercepted and decoded by Room 40, the cryptanalysis department of the British Military during WWI.
1918 GB returns to gold standard post-war but it didn’t work out
1919 First rotor machine, an electro-mechanical stream ciphering and decrypting machine.
1919 Founding of The Cipher Bureau, Poland’s intelligence and cryptography agency.
1919-1929 The Black Chamber, a forerunner of the NSA, was the first U.S. cryptanalytic organization. Worked with the telegraph company Western Union to illegally acquire foreign communications of foreign embassies and representatives. It was shut down in 1929 as funding was removed after it was deemed unethical to intercept private domestic radio signals.
1920s Department stores, hotel chains and service staions begin offering customers charge cards
1921-1929 The “Roaring 20’s” – The Federal Reserve Floods the Economy with Cash and Credit
From 1921 to 1929 the Federal Reserve increased the money supply by $28 billion, almost a 62% increase over an eight-year period.[3] This artificially created another “boom”.
1927 Quartz clock
1928 First experimental Television broadcast in the US.
1929 Federal Reserve Contracts the Money Supply
In 1929, the Federal Reserve began to pull money out of circulation as loans were paid back. They created a “bust” which was inevitable after issuing so much credit in the years before. The Federal Reserve’s actions triggered the banking crisis, which led to the Great Depression.
1929 October 24, “Black Thursday”, Stock Market Crash
The most devastating stock market crash in history. Billions of dollars in value were consolidated into the private banker’s hands at the expense of everyone else.
1930s The Great Depression marked the end of the gold standard
1931 German Enigma machines attained and reconstructed.
1932 Turbo jet engine patented
1933 SEC founded - passed the Glass–Steagall Act, which separated investment banking and commercial banking. This was to avoid more risky investment banking activities from ever again causing commercial bank failures.
1933 FM Radio
1933 Germany begins Telex, a network of teleprinters sending and receiving text based messages. Post WWII Telex networks began to spread around the world.
1936 Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented Printed circuit board
1936 Beginning of the Keynesian Revolution
1937 Typex, British encryption machines which were upgraded versions of Enigma machines.
1906 Teletypewriters
1927 Founding of highly secret and unofficial Signal Intelligence Service, SIS, the U.S. Army’s codebreaking division.
1937 Made illegal for Americans to own gold
1938 Z1 built by Konrad Zuse is the first freely programmable computer in the world.
1939 WWII – decline of the gold standard which greatly restricted policy making
1939-45 Codetalkers - The Navajo code is the only spoken military code never to have been deciphered - "Were it not for the Navajos, the Marines would never have taken Iwo Jima."—Howard Connor
1940 Modems
1942 Deciphering Japanese coded messages leads to a turning point victory for the U.S. in WWII.
1943 At Bletchley Park, Alan Turing and team build a specialized cipher-breaking machine called Heath Robinson.
1943 Colossus computer built in London to crack the German Lorenz cipher.
1944 Bretton Woods – convenient after the US had most of the gold
1945 Manhattan Project – Atom Bomb
1945 Transatlantic telephone cable
1945 Claude E. Shannon published "A mathematical theory of cryptography", commonly accepted as the starting point for development of modern cryptography.
C1946 Crypto Wars begin and last to this day
1946 Charg-it card created by John C Biggins
1948 Atomic clock
1948 Claude Shannon writes a paper that establishes the mathematical basis of information theory
1949 Info theorist Claude Shannon asks “What does an ideal cipher look like?” – one time pad – what if the keys are not truly random
1950 First credit card released by the Diners Club, able to be used in 20 restaurants in NYC
1951 NSA, National Security Agency founded and creates the KL-7, an off-line rotor encryption machine
1952 First thermonuclear weapon
1953 First videotape recorder
1953 Term “Hash” first used meaning to “chop” or “make a mess” out of something
1954 Atomic Energy Act (no mention of crypto)
1957 The NSA begins producing ROMOLUS encryption machines, soon to be used by NATO
1957 First PC – IBM
1957 First Satellite – Sputnik 1
1958 Western Union begins building a nationwide Telex network in the U.S.
1960s Machine readable codes were added to the bottom of cheques in MICR format, which speeded up the clearing and sorting process
1960s Financial organizations were beginning to require strong commercial encryption on the rapidly growing field of wired money transfer.
1961 Electronic clock
1963 June 4, Kennedy Issued an Executive Order (11110) that Authorized the US Treasury to Issue Silver Certificates, Threatening the Federal Reserve’s Monopoly on Money
This government issued currency would bypass the governments need to borrow from bankers at interest.
1963 Electronic calculator
1963 Nov. 22, Kennedy Assassinated
1963 Johnson Reverses Kennedy’s Banking Rule and Restores Power to the Federal Reserve
1964 8-Track
1964 LAN, Local Area Networks adapters
1965 Moore’s Law by CEO of Intel Gordon Moore observes that the number of components per integrated circuit doubles every year, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975 he revised it to every two years.
1967 First ATM installed at Barclay’s Bank in London
1968 Cassette Player introduced
1969 First connections of ARPANET, predecessor of the internet, are made. started – SF, SB, UCLA, Utah (now Darpa) – made to stay ahead of the Soviets – there were other networks being built around the world but it was very hard to connect them – CERN in Europe
1970s Stagflation – unemployment + inflation, which Keynesian theory could not explain
1970s Business/commercial applications for Crypto emerge – prior to this time it was militarily used – ATMs 1st got people thinking about commercial applications of cryptography – data being sent over telephone lines
1970s The public developments of the 1970s broke the near monopoly on high quality cryptography held by government organizations.
Use of checks increased in 70s – bringing about ACH
One way functions...
A few companies began selling access to private networks – but weren’t allowed to connect to the internet – business and universities using Arpanet had no commercial traffic – internet was used for research, not for commerce or advertising
1970 Railroads threatened by the growing popularity of air travel. Penn Central Railroad declares bankruptcy resulting in a $3.2 billion bailout
1970 Conjugate coding used in an attempt to design “money physically impossible to counterfeit”
1971 The US officially removes the gold standard
1971 Email invented
1971 Email
1971 First microcomputer on a chip
1971 Lockheed Bailout - $1.4 billion – Lockheed was a major government defense contractor
1972 First programmable word processor
1972 First video game console
1973 SWIFT established
1973 Ethernet invented, standardized in ‘83
1973 Mobile phone
1973 First commercial GUI – Xerox Alto
1973 First touchscreen
1973 Emails made up more than ¾ of ARPANET’s packets – people had to keep a map of the network by their desk – so DNS was created
1974 A protocol for packet network intercommunication – TCP/IP – Cerf and Kahn
1974 Franklin National Bank Bailout - $1.5 billion (valued at that time) - At the time, it was the largest bank failure in US history
1975 New York City Bailout - $9.4 billion – NYC was overextended
1975 W DES - meant that commercial uses of high quality encryption would become common, and serious problems of export control began to arise.
1975 DES, Data Encryption Standard developed at IBM, seeking to develop secure electronic communications for banks and large financial organizations. DES was the first publicly accessible cipher to be 'blessed' by a national agency such as the NSA. Its release stimulated an explosion of public and academic interest in cryptography.
1975 Digital camera
1975 Altair 8800 sparks the microprocessor revolution
1976 Bretton Woods ratified (lasted 30 years) – by 80’s all nations were using floating currencies
1976 New Directions in Cryptography published by Diffie & Hellman – this terrified Fort Meade – previously this technique was classified, now it’s public
1976 Apple I Computer – Steve Wozniak
1976 Asymmetric key cryptosystem published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
1976 Hellman and Diffie publish New Directions in Cryptography, introducing a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, contributing much to solving key distribution one of the fundamental problems of cryptography. It brought about the almost immediate public development of asymmetric key algorithms. - where people can have 2 sets of keys, public and private
1977 Diffie & Hellman receive letter from NSA employee JA Meyer that they’re violating Federal Laws comparable to arms export – this raises the question, “Can the gov prevent academics from publishing on crypto?
1977 DES considered insecure
1977 First handheld electronic game
1977 RSA public key encryption invented
1978 McEliece Cryptosystem invented, first asymmetric encryption algorithm to use randomization in the encryption process
1980s Large data centers began being built to store files and give users a better faster experience – companies rented space from them - Data centers would not only store data but scour it to show people what they might want to see and in some cases, sell data
1980s Reaganomics and Thatcherism
1980 A decade of intense bank failures begins; the FDIC reports that 1,600 were either closed or received financial assistance from 1980 to 1994
1980 Chrysler Bailout – lost over $1 billion due to major hubris on the part of its executives - $1.5 billion one of the largest payouts ever made to a single corporation.
1980 Protocols for public key cryptosystems – Ralph Merkle
1980 Flash memory invented – public in ‘84
1981 “Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses and Digital Pseudonumns” – Chaum
1981 EFTPOS, Electronic funds transfer at point of sale is created
1981 IBM Personal Computer
1982 “The Ethics of Liberty” Murray Rothbard
1982 Commodore 64
1982 CD
1983 Satellite TV
1983 First built in hard drive
1983 C++
1983 Stereolithography
1983 Blind signatures for untraceable payments
Mid 1980s Use of ATMs becomes more widespread
1984 Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust bailed out due to overly aggressive lending styles and - the bank’s downfall could be directly traced to risk taking and a lack of due diligence on the part of bank officers - $9.5 billion in 2008 money
1984 Macintosh Computer - the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse
1984 CD Rom
1985 Zero-Knowledge Proofs first proposed
1985 300,000 simultaneous telephone conversations over single optical fiber
1985 Elliptic Curve Cryptography
1987 ARPANET had connected over 20k guarded computers by this time
1988 First private networks email servers connected to NSFNET
1988 The Crypto Anarchists Manifesto – Timothy C May
1988 ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network
1989 Savings & Loan Bailout - After the widespread failure of savings and loan institutions, President George H. W. Bush signed and Congress enacted the Financial Institutions Reform Recovery and Enforcement Act - This was a taxpayer bailout of about $200 billion
1989 First commercial emails sent
1989 Digicash - Chaum
1989 Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web, WWW
1989 First ISPs – companies with no network of their own which connected people to a local network and to the internet - To connect to a network your computer placed a phone call through a modem which translated analog signals to digital signals – dial-up was used to connect computers as phone lines already had an extensive network across the U.S. – but phone lines weren’t designed for high pitched sounds that could change fast to transmit large amounts of data
1990s Cryptowars really heat up...
1990s Some countries started to change their laws to allow "truncation"
1990s Encryption export controls became a matter of public concern with the introduction of the personal computer. Phil Zimmermann's PGP cryptosystem and its distribution on the Internet in 1991 was the first major 'individual level' challenge to controls on export of cryptography. The growth of electronic commerce in the 1990s created additional pressure for reduced restrictions.[3] Shortly afterward, Netscape's SSL technology was widely adopted as a method for protecting credit card transactions using public key cryptography.
1990 NSFNET replaced Arpanet as backbone of the internet with more than 500k users
Early 90s Dial up provided through AOL and Compuserve
People were leery to use credit cards on the internet
1991 How to time-stamp a digital doc - Stornetta
1991 Phil Zimmermann releases the public key encryption program Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) along with its source code, which quickly appears on the Internet. He distributed a freeware version of PGP when he felt threatened by legislation then under consideration by the US Government that would require backdoors to be included in all cryptographic products developed within the US. Expanded the market to include anyone wanting to use cryptography on a personal computer (before only military, governments, large corporations)
1991 WWW (Tim Berners Lee) – made public in ‘93 – flatten the “tree” structure of the internet using hypertext – reason for HTTP//:WWW – LATER HTTPS for more security
1992 Erwise – first Internet Browser w a graphical Interface
1992 Congress passed a law allowing for commercial traffic on NSFNET
1992 Cpherpunks, Eric Hughes, Tim C May and John Gilmore – online privacy and safety from gov – cypherpunks write code so it can be spread and not shut down (in my earlier chapter)
1993 Mosaic – popularized surfing the web ‘til Netscape Navigator in ’94 – whose code was later used in Firefox
1993 A Cypherpunks Manifesto – Eric Hughes
1994 World’s first online cyberbank, First Virtual, opened for business
1994 Bluetooth
1994 First DVD player
1994 Stanford Federal Credit Union becomes the first financial institution to offer online internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994
1994 Internet only used by a few
1994 Cybercash
1994 Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption protocol released by Netscape. Making financial transactions possible.
1994 One of the first online purchases was made, a Pizza Hut pepperoni pizza with mushrooms and extra cheese
1994 Cyphernomicon published – social implication where gov can’t do anything about it
1994-1999 Social Networking – GeoCities (combining creators and users) – had 19M users by ’99 – 3rd most popular after AOL and Yahoo – GeoCities purchased by Yahoo for $3.6B but took a hit after dotcom bubble popped and never recovered – GC shut down in ‘99
1995-2000 Dotcom bubble – Google, Amazon, Facebook: get over 600M visitors/year
1995 DVD
1995 MP3 term coined for MP3 files, the earlier development of which stretches back into the ‘70s, where MP files themselves where developed throughout the ‘90s
1995 NSFNET shut down and handed everything over to the ISPs
1995 NSA publishes the SHA1 hash algorithm as part of its Digital Signature Standard.
1996, 2000 President Bill Clinton signing the Executive order 13026 transferring the commercial encryption from the Munition List to the Commerce Control List. This order permitted the United States Department of Commerce to implement rules that greatly simplified the export of proprietary and open source software containing cryptography, which they did in 2000 - The successful cracking of DES likely helped gather both political and technical support for more advanced encryption in the hands of ordinary citizens - NSA considers AES strong enough to protect information classified at the Top Secret level
1996 e-gold
1997 WAP, Wireless Access Point
1997 NSA researchers published how to mint e cash
1997 Adam Back – HashCash – used PoW – coins could only be used once
1997 Nick Szabo – smart contracts “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks”
1998 OSS, Open-source software Initiative Founded
1998 Wei Dai – B-money – decentralized database to record txs
1998 Bitgold
1998 First backdoor created by hackers from Cult of the Dead Cow
1998 Musk and Thiel founded PayPal
1998 Nick Szabo says crypto can protect land titles even if thugs take it by force – said it could be done with a timestamped database
1999 Much of the Glass-Steagal Act repealed - this saw US retail banks embark on big rounds of mergers and acquisitions and also engage in investment banking activities.
1999 Milton Friedman says, “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that's missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash - a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B without A knowing B or B knowing A.”
1999 European banks began offering mobile banking with the first smartphones
1999 The Financial Services Modernization Act Allows Banks to Grow Even Larger
Many economists and politicians have recognized that this legislation played a key part in the subprime mortgage crisis of 2007.
1999-2001 Napster, P2P file sharing – was one of the fastest growing businesses in history – bankrupt for paying musicians for copyright infringement

submitted by crypto_jedi_ninja to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain is the Future!

https://preview.redd.it/jyueag7hi7m21.png?width=1125&format=png&auto=webp&s=1fe2102db192a3765c778c170b0516b090765b80
Blockchain Technology, two words that have been gradually incorporated into the vocabulary of daily conversations and news headlines. Once relatively obscured, it has now entered popular discourse and turned into conversation starters. Banking behemoths and stock exchanges like JP Morgan and Swiss Stock Exchange have also chimed into the conversation alongside Telegram and Facebook. With so much buzz surrounding its hood, one can’t help but wonder just what’s so special about this technology and why the fuss about it? Here’s a simple article explaining why.

First, Let’s Get Down to the Grit. What Exactly is Blockchain Technology?
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Blockchain technology, also known as distributed ledger technology, is a virtual network that maintains and updates ledgers of data in blocks separated by cryptographic links and unique timestamps. Its first debut came with the release of Bitcoin in 2009 by an anonymous being “Satoshi Nakamoto” who used blockchain technology as a ledger to store all data culminated from financial transactions involving Bitcoin. These data records are secure and immutable, and are rendered impossible to change once contained within the chain.
After Bitcoin came a surge in projects looking to explore the the usage of blockchain technology in areas beyond data storage. One famous instance would be JP Morgan bank’s introduction of the JPM Coin in a bid to resolve slow remittance and cross-border payments.

Okay, But So What?
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At a single glance, it is difficult to identify the advantages of blockchain technology. Using a Google document for example, every user given access to the document is allowed to write any form of entry or add any data within the shared document and amend or edit the data freely. The same goes for data stored on blockchain. However, while both run on distributed networks like the Internet, Google documents are stored on the World Wide Web (WWW) model which is a client-server based network. This means that any user with the rightful authority accorded by the centralised organisation is able to amend information stored on the network. Also, when amendments are made by other users, the authority is presented with the master copy and can overwrite any changes made to the entry by other users and limit their access to the information given.
In short, blockchain technology allows everyone to have a clear transparent view of what is taking place on the server at any point of time. WWW, in contrast, allows certain privileges to administrators or higher-ups to have full say and control over transactions happening on their ledger.

How Will It Affect The Future?

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Transparency is important in cultivating digital trust and everyone knows that. The development of the Internet has shifted to the virtual network with many countries identifying blockchain technology as the key catalyst for a decentralised economy. An unspoken competition now exists amongst countries as they rush to release blockchain-friendly policies and attract potential businesses to invest in their economy.
United States, for instance, released a bill on 28 January 2019 recognising the effectiveness of the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT). Amendments were made to the “Purpose and Structure” and “Definition” portions in the Washington State Electronics Certification Act which was in compliance with Digital Signatures and License Law to encourage the development of distributed ledgers and blockchain technology in the state.
Most recently, however, Thailand’s Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has approved a portal for Initial Coin Offering (ICO) in the country. According to news source Finance Magnates, director of the fintech department at the SEC Archari Suppiroj said: “In the future, the SEC will issue a criteria that allows companies to apply tokenization to securities and other assets [which] will help bridge the digital asset royal decree and securities law.”
Conclusion?
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Not everyone believes that blockchain technology will have a bright future. Still, there remains little room for doubt that to a certain extent, blockchain technology will affect all fields and industries with its ability to create a safe and secure environment for financial transactions. By itself, blockchain technology can ensure higher efficiency rates and true-blue transparency in any data sharing process.
As blockchain technology and cryptocurrency gain rapid traction all over the world, what better way to enter the crypto market than with one of the best stablecoins available, 1SG?

About 1SG:
1SG is a stable coin, issued by the Mars Blockchain Group which overcomes the problems of today’s cryptocurrencies, while providing open, transparent, efficient KYC/AML process. With the key features of stable value and high liquidity, Mars Blockchain is a start-up committed to becoming a leading stable coin in global cryptocurrency market. 1SG circumvents the volatility of other major cryptocurrencies by maintaining a fixed peg to $1 SGD through financial markets.
For more details, check out www.1.sg
For more information on 1SG, keep up with its following social media:
Telegram: https://t.me/SGone
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YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_p_8y1geOe0lmB4F3i6Fpg
To trade 1SG now, head over to these exchange platforms:
P2PB2B: https://p2pb2b.io/
BitMart: https://www.bitmart.com/
TOP.ONE: https://top.one/index
Kryptono: https://kryptono.exchange/k/home
OEX: https://www.oex.com/index
submitted by 1-SG to 1SG_ [link] [comments]

Critical Misunderstanding: "Bitcoin=Digital Gold (This post was posted to r/bitcoin and removed by their thought police. Gee, these people are assholes.)

Critical Misunderstanding: "Bitcoin=Digital Gold" (self.Bitcoin)
submitted 7 days ago by KingofKens
Bitcoin is not digital gold at all. The asset class, type and characteristic is very different. Bitcoin has a similar characteristic to company stocks than precious metals.
Only finite amount of gold exists. Nobody can't use alchemy to create gold or similar precious metals. On the other hand we can copy & paste the code of Bitcoin and we can create unlimited # of alt coins which have the same or similar function of bitcoin.
We got to think the whole bitcoin network as a DAO. The service that we provide is an alternative money service to government fiat. The value that we transferring is share of the DAO.
It is like a company's services become more popular, the stock of company will go up. Bitcoin price will always follow by popularity. If it become useless and unpopular, the value will go down. This is nothing like gold. There are no alternative to the gold. Gold is gold always.
Bitcoin artificial scarcity helps to establish the value but it won't guarantee the long term value of Bitcoin. Bitcoin is just one of the competing crypto currencies in the completely free market. You can't stop new comers and competitors.
Yes, it stores value, but It only stores the value of popularity of the coin. Facebook's share stores the value. Myspace's share is as well but not much any more.
Cryptocurrencies are far far from gold. It can't be digital gold even that we want. The value is much more dynamic and it can be million also can be 0 as well. That is not gold at all. We got to think through where the value of Bitcoin derives. If we keep providing slow, expensive services with a crazy internal warfare. People simply move one coin to others. Eventually it will be replaced by other coins. Then Bitcoin will be obsolete and won't have much value.
Gold will exist next thousand years? We safely can say yes. How about Bitcoin? This question is same as you are asking google will exist next thousand years or not. Bitcoin will dominate the market next tens of years like google did? Yeah, that is entirely possible, but no guarantee because of the perfect competition of crypto currency market.
Bitcoin is and was design as "A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". The original design of bitcoin is clear, "A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". Not digital gold store values. http://nakamotoinstitute.org/bitcoin/
Satoshi was very clearly thinking on chain scaling to compete with the visa level as well. https://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg09964.html
He invented Bitcoin, “A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”, to combat to inflationary government fiats which issued by the central banks and fractional reserve banking system. His political intention is very clear. http://p2pfoundation.ning.com/forum/topics/bitcoin-open-source?id=2003008%3ATopic%3A9402&page=1#comments
I don't think the current technician team of Bitcoin DAO, Core, understands this basic design concept and philosophy.
I really hate people so easily dismiss his original vision for security. Engineers are important but they are not CEO or founder who make big visions of the company.
Engineers jobs to make the original vision secure, not alter the original vision. If core members think they are super genius, make the original vision happens safely.
Below are Satoshi's original writings. Read your self and make your mind.
Satoshi on government fiats, central banks and fractional reserve banking system
“The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that's required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts. Their massive overhead costs make micropayments impossible.”
Satoshi Nakamoto on February 11, 2009 http://p2pfoundation.ning.com/forum/topics/bitcoin-open-source?id=2003008%3ATopic%3A9402&page=1#comments
Satoshi white paper: "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System"
“A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone. ”
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System Satoshi Nakamoto October 31, 2008 http://nakamotoinstitute.org/bitcoin/#selection-7.4-19.27
Satoshi on Bitcoin scaling
“Long before the network gets anywhere near as large as that, it would be safe for users to use Simplified Payment Verification (section 8) to check for double spending, which only requires having the chain of block headers, or about 12KB per day. Only people trying to create new coins would need to run network nodes. At first, most users would run network nodes, but as the network grows beyond a certain point, it would be left more and more to specialists with server farms of specialized hardware. A server farm would only need to have one node on the network and the rest of the LAN connects with that one node.
The bandwidth might not be as prohibitive as you think. A typical transaction would be about 400 bytes (ECC is nicely compact). Each transaction has to be broadcast twice, so lets say 1KB per transaction. Visa processed 37 billion transactions in FY2008, or an average of 100 million transactions per day. That many transactions would take 100GB of bandwidth, or the size of 12 DVD or 2 HD quality movies, or about $18 worth of bandwidth at current prices.
If the network were to get that big, it would take several years, and by then, sending 2 HD movies over the Internet would probably not seem like a big deal. “
Satoshi Nakamoto Sun, 02 Nov 2008 17:56:27 -0800 https://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg09964.html
submitted by KingofKens to btc [link] [comments]

DEVCON2 report: Day Three - Final day

previous days
Question: the 3 days of devcon are over. Are people interested in reports on the next 3 days of international Blockchain week (demo day + 2 days of global Blockchain summit) http://www.blockchainweek2016.org
`
Event update
The buzz during the day was around the "stick puzzle" that Bok Khoo was giving out to people. It is just a stick, with a loop of string. He gets you to turn away, he uses "the trick" to put it onto your bag and then you try to get it off.
The WeChat channel was just filled with everyone asking where they can get it, and the screaming that they can't figure it out. Only about 5 people reported they were able to solve it (I haven't yet)
http://imgur.com/mYfJQP4 http://imgur.com/4Euka1a
`
Sessions
I'm biased, but I thought the announcement from Microsoft with the update of cryptlets was a big deal. The morning sessions covered a few different oracle systems, the afternoon had lots of IPFS sessions.
Microsoft - A Lap around Cryptlets
https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/cryptletsdd/ https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/documentation/templates/ethereum-consortium-blockchain-network/ https://azure.microsoft.com/en-us/blog/authomarleyg
Microsoft was a sponsor of Devcon1 & 2 Ethereum is a 1st class citizen Support for community & partners - Bizspark, Meetups, Workshops
Announcing: Bletchley v1 Distributed Ledger stack V1 is a private Ethrerum consortium, that you can spin up for your own enterprise / group
http://imgur.com/olwwd36
Cryptlets are being developed to help with security, identity, etc. How do you get trusted external data feeds injected into the Blockchain? Doing things on a specific interval (every 15 mins) When price of something hits a threshold (oil goes above $40/barrel) Secure IP protected algorithms, but still share with blockchain network. Use libraries for common platforms (.Net, Java, etc)
Cryptlets vs Oracle Cryptlets will have a marketplace on Azure that will allow you to purchase and utilise
Use case: Trigger on an event Wake up on 4pm, if market was open that day, then give me the price of gold for that day.Get signature of attested server, attested sender.
Use case: Control Using smart contract like a traditional DB. Declare data you are keeping track of, and the functions/"stored proc" to update that data. Cryptlet runs off chain, and can be scaled up.
http://imgur.com/ysgL8S2
Utility cryptlet. Use an attribute in solidity contract with cryptlet details Developer references at design time the cryptlet they want the contract to call Contract cryptlet, deploy the cryptlet at same time as contract.
Why would you want Azure to do this? SGX allows you to create "secure enclaves", can have complete isolation on the hardware chip where it is not modifable. Provides a secure enclave at the CPU level. Can give full attestation right down to the silicon. Will be provided as a enclave container on Azure. Will be released for .NET core CLR first, then other languages. Can create cryptlet libraries that you can scale and put into the Azure marketplace. An ecosystem for developers & ISVs to consume and publish.
Bletchley v1 released today will let you spin up a private consortium. Before today, it took a long time to try and deploy a private consortium (can take weeks to read doco, Now takes 5 minutes to deploy! Creates a private consortium, puts each member in its own separate subnet
http://imgur.com/w4yUsqE
Mist Vision and Demo I was too busy sharing the release posts of Microsoft project bletchey v1, missed this talk. It did look interesting, I will watch this one later. Idea: Reward for bandwidth. Providing connection could replace mining as entrance point for desktop computers. Allow you to have a trickle so you can trigger smart contracts. Standardised backends, so that you can swap out the underlying node between geth, blockapps, etc.
Web3.js
https://github.com/ethereum/web3.js Etehereum JS API Smart conracts are EVM opcodes, Helps translates calls to JSON RPC calls. Helps do the ABI encoding when sending data from JS to EVM It kept on growing, many different utility functions being thrown in. Is time to clean it up and be refactored.
They are now building a NEW web3.js The communication will be socket based, will enable subscriptions. Everything will be based on promises to subscribe to events, like log events. Bunch of other newer cleaner methods and ways to do things like deploying contracts.
Smart contract security
Was a very good postmorteum of The DAO and things that could be done to mitigate it in the future.
An issue with The DAO was trying to do a massive jump from centralisation all the way to full decentralisation. Meant no one could step up and make a decision on how to save it. We need to make smaller steps towards full decentralisation as we learn as a community how to do this. Same security patterns as yesterday's talks: check invarients, beware 1024 call stack depth, reentry exploit (update state BEFORE executing calls), timestamps are manipulatable. Updateable contracts. Who can update it? Community multisig? We need better rools: formal verification, compiler warnings, improved IDEs, trusted libraries, excape hatches
Conclusion: It is still very early days in this space, be careful.
A Provably Honest Oracle Model: Auditable Offchain Data Gathering & Computations
Oracalize is the most widely used oracle (until everyone starts using Microsoft Azure cryptlets ;-) ) Contract calls Oracalize contract with the data they want, off chain they see this get the data, Oracalise then trigger their contract externally, which does a callback to your contract with the data. Can use external notary servers. Can get proof from multiple external services to get a higher level of confidence about data (e.g. stock price from a few feeds). Off-chain (auditable_ computation) AWS sandbox 2.0. Put the execution package onto IPFS, AWS gets it and executes it, signs it.
iEx.ec: Fully Distributed Cloud Thanks to the Ethereum Blockchain
http://iex.ec/ Provides blockchain based execution environments Global market for computing resources. Idea is to do what we did before with "grid computing" use the idle capacity of computers. But this time do a trickle of micropayments. Allows people to harness this global power to execute their tasks in a global "distributed cloud".
The Final frontier: The company smart conract
http://otonomos.com/ Helping companies to incorporate on the blockchain.
Smart oracles
https://github.com/smartoracles Connecting to external resources is difficult. Hard to try and use external currencies (like a bank account / fiat money) to make transactions. Could hook in paypal, HSBC, wells fargo, etc. Can provide your own payment services as an API to a smart oracle for smart contracts to consume. Do off chain data storage by calling smart oracle API Roadmap: more data sources & more payment methods
IPFS & Ethereum: Updates
https://Ipfs.io IPFS is AMAZING, seriously go watch the full 1 hour talks Juan has given in previous years.
Current web has current issues. Centralisation, etc. IPFS is a new hypermedia transfer protocol Content can be retrieved not from specific servers, but instead via it's hash so that it can come from anywhere in the network (maybe from the person next to you who has cached it). It is highly modular, all of the transfer protocals, routing, naming, etc. are all swapable Is available as GO-IPFS & now JS-IPFS Means now you can run IPFS in the browser IPFS was great for static content, but not so great for dynamic content. Low latency pub/sub protocol will help with dynamic data. Created a distributed peer to peer chat app using this new dynamic content protocol. IPLD a common link-tree hash format Will be able to use IPFS to retrieve ethereum blockchain blocks DIRECTLY Can use IPFS as a package manager to retrieve them in a distributed manner.
Many projects are using Ethereum & IPFS Uport, Digix, Infura, Ujo, Eris, Blockfreight. Filecoin was created as a way to try and incentivize nodes to keep files longer time. People rent out hdd space to earn filecoin. Exchange bitcoin/filecoin. Use filecoin to store files in network. Filecoin is going to be built on top of the public Ethereum blockchain, as a virtual blockchain / token.
IPFS Libp2p & Ethereum networking
Network connectivity between any 2 nodes can be difficult. Censorship, bandwidth, network issues, etc. Having to deal with different networking topologies and access. Libp2p & Devp2p is different. Devp2p is for Ethereum. LIbp2p is modular, can swap out components to change network access, encryption methods, etc. Can build up a MEGA mesh network, by utilising traditional wired internet, radio, bluetooth between some nodes. Web browser using web socket, to a node, which routes across network, to zigbee to a IoT device. Libp2p & Devp2p could merge and augment each other. Could create the libp2p components to replace the devp2p bits Any 2 nodes that speak the same protocol can communicate and be a part of the network chain. Experiment. They took the browser based version of EVM. Then used Libp2p to talk to the Ethereum network. Had a complete ethereum node running in a browser.
Uport
https://uport.me/ Universal identity platform Current challenges: key management. Ux for average person. Dapps via mobile. Identity and data ownership. How do you keep a consistent identity, even if you lose a key. Have some multisig contracts that you can use to keep track. Social recovery, use your friends to attest it is really you. Keep private key on mobile, do transactions on the desktop, scan a QR code to sign the transaction on your phone and send it off.
A Deep Dive into the Colony Foundation Protocol
It is an open source governance protocol built on Ethereum Problem with voting is how to prevent Sybil attacks. Votes are weighted by a reputation score. Reputation is non-transferable that can only be earned. Total weighted voting helps mitigate this.
Chain orchestration tooling & smart contract package management
Eris is tooling for developers. Package manager to build your own blockchain. Can compose a chain, e.g. geth + tendermint consensus. Init, install, do. Can easily install on Mac/bew, linux/apt-get, Windows/choco
The Golem Project: Ethereum-based market for computing power
http://www.golemproject.net/ Anyone can make an offer to sell computing power. e.g. Distributed rendering Want to create a standard framework that anyone can use to submit and process jobs.
Status: Integrating Ethereum Into Our Daily Lives
https://status.im Want to get ethereum everywhere. "Mist for Mobile" Everyone is using their mobile phones for everything, but mostly using instant messaging. What would Ethereum in a IM window look? Created a IM mobile app that has a local geth node. tart up, it asks you to create a password, it generates a pub/private pair. Then can send messages via whisper, and the messages are signed with your public key. Can load Dapps up in the local webview and interact with them. Allows you to create "chat Dapps", that you interact with via text. Like chatbots
Maker Ecosystem Overview
www.Makerdao.com Dai: seeking stability on blockchain. Stablecoin engine: smart contract that holds collateral reserves and controls the Dai lifecycle. MKR: open source community managing risk of the system In the last year, investing in a solid technical core. More slow and audit things. Moving into the next phase of stablecoin development. Their latest project is the "Simplecoin project" Meeting Thereum community's need for stability. An independent platform for creating centrally administered simple stablecoins. Issues create their own rule sets: Collateral types, participant whitelists, security parameters. Example: Shrutebucks. The only people who own it are Dwight, Jim & Pam. They backed it with 1/3 ETH 1/3 DGX 1/3 DUSD.
Orbit. A distributed peer to peer app on IPFS
https://github.com/haadcode Created a full distributed chat room, itself distributed through IPFS. It is integrated with uPort for identification Using uPort allows you to verify that you are talking to the correct person in the chat channel. All their messages are signed with their public keys He also created a full distribited twitter clone, using uport for the identity as well. Orbit-db key value store DB that stores its data on IPFS. Eventually consistent Appends data to the DB, an event is sent to those subscribed on pub/sub so they can see the latest root hash. Based on CRDT Ethereum + Pubsub + CRDTs + IPFS = super power primatives to build dynamic distributed apps
Development considerations with distributed apps. Need to ensure that apps work offline. No centralised servers. No data silos. Provide integration path.
Future work: could you use uPort for ACL like permissions? Mobile use cases, how to make it work nicely on mobiles
Building scalable React Dapp architecture
https://github.com/SilentCicero/react-dapp-boilerplate React + Ethereum He has a configured boilerplate template. Has contract scaffolding. Enforced contract Linting/testing. Wallet generation/identity. Preconfigured web3 instance. UI: Mature react arhitecture "react boilerplate". Prices listed in USD with ETH/btc via kraken api. A basic multi-contract example Dapp. Offline first, dapp runs without internet. Uses Redux. State models in UI & blockchains work well. PostCSS, CSS Modules, sanitize.cs. Redux, immutableJS, reslect, redux-saga, i18n, redux-router. Web3, ethdeploy, dapple, solium, eth-lightwallet, chaithereum, ethereumjs0-testrpc Enforced contract testing in 2 languages.
Ethereum for Enterprise (BlockApps Strato)
Trying to make sure that Ethereum stays relevent to enterprise development. Why do you need a blockchain WITHIN an org, shouldn't they trust each other? Well different departments may not, they may reconcile differently, and can help automate/orchestrate between them. Blockchain is the "killer app" for cloud financial services. Legacy infrastructure, batch prossing, etc are all restricting fintech from progressing. Blockchain can happen in real time, can replace legacy. Ethereum is very flexible and programmable, works well. There are others based on Bitcoin (like Hyperledger). Ethereum + Blockapps = Extreme productivity + Proven Technology. Blockapps is extending Ethereum for Enterprise. Runs very well on Azure Enterprises don't want all their data exposed on public chain. Blockapps helps solve data privacy and scaling with multichain fabrics.
submitted by DavidBurela to ethereum [link] [comments]

BE AWARE! AN AVALANCHE OF STOCKBROKERS IS ABOUT TO HAPPEN! A NEW COMMISSION-FREE CRYPTO FUTURES MARKET IS ABOUT TO BE LAUNCHED, LET'S MEET DIGITEX





Crypto has been struggling to get accepted into formal financial markets recently, Bitcoin ETF proposals have been rejected by the SEC one after the other. The SEC argues that its main concerns are market price manipulation, security issues on the crypto exchanges, low liquidity and mall relative size of the crypto market.

While it might get some more time to develop more reliable tools on the crypto ecosystem and have SEC approves bitcoin ETF. It is well known that strong future markets help to stabilize volatile prices of many assets such as commodities. Futures markets have to be incentivized to grow further and bring more overall reliability to the crypto ecosystem.

Foreseeing this opportunity, a experimented pit-trader from the London International Financial & Options Exchange (LIFFE) has inspired a crafty team to create the perfect opportunity for crypto futures markets ultimate expansion an growth. They create a concept that will change the current paradigm of crypto futures market. They have created Digitex, the first commission-free futures exchange.


Why futures markets are such a big deal?


Futures markets are one of the most important tools for stabilizing volatile markets. Its relevance for the crypto ecosystem lies in three factors:


But despite its great benefits and low costs, futures market's fees are still too much of a burden for high volume, low profit, margin futures trading strategies. This situation hinders futures market liquidity and turns possible profitable strategies into losing ones after commissions are charged.

Digitex gamechanger commission-free scheme



Digitex will create an Ethereum based token, it will be called DGTX. It will be used to denominate all profits, losses, margin requirements and account balances. Therefore, any trader that wants to participate in the commission-free trading environment of Digitex should own DGTX, thus a great demand is expected from the traders willing to join this unique opportunity.

Having read this much a question yet remain unanswered, how is it possible for an exchange to operate without charging fees? How does it sustain itself?



At this point is when the genie came out of the lamp. Instead of charging fees on traders that bring liquidity to the futures market, Digitex revenue model imposes a small inflationary cost on all token holders that will be widely outweighed with the high demand that the DGTX token will have. Even better, Digitex Futures Exchange will leverage onto the trustless security system of the Ethereum Blockchain to guard account balances. An Ethereum smart contract will hold all account balances, Digitex will inform the Smart Contract about each trader outstanding margin liabilities and profit/losses balance.

In a nutshell, Digitex Futures Exchange will not hold any physical data about traders balance nor it will hold any private key from users. Thus, malicious actors have little to no incentives to attack the Digitex.

The icing on the cake. DGTX holders will be the ones who decide DGTX minting rates


DGTX token issuance will be democratically decided by the DGTX holders through a mechanism leveraged on the Blockchain, this will readily enforce a healthy DGTX token inflation rate, aligning the interest of the DGTX holders with the interest of the Digitex Futures Exchange.


Futures traders' commission-free Utopia, a dream that became true


By creating an ERC-223 token on the Ethereum Blockchain, and by using it as the native currency of the Digitex Futures Exchange, traders will be to enjoy more freedom than ever with a operating scheme that allows them to implement whatever trading strategy they desire without fees-related limitations.


This new high liquid market will attract many traders that must buy DGTX token to cover the margin requirements to open trades. Thus, the inflationary pressure will be more than matched with the high demand for DGTX tokens. Besides, the first two years there will be no issuance of DGTX tokens since all operative cost will be covered through the DGTX ICO. Skeptical traders will have more than plenty time to watch the performance of the Digitex Futures Exchange, but traders will have to keep in mind that the early bird gets the worm.

According to Digitex Futures Exchange projections, in early 2021 the first issuance of DGTX tokens will occur. Traders will vote to decide how many tokens will be minted to cover for software development, servers, staff, premises, marketing, support, and other related costs to keep the platform fully operational. They will do so through a Blockchain-based, Decentralized, Governance Mechanism that will allow DGTX holders to vote with a 1-DGTX/1-vote ratio.

If you have had enough and don't want to waste more time to join this project, go here and get early access. If not keep reading that it just gets better



DGTX token details


Since all profits and losses are denominated in DGTX tokens, each trader have to own enough DGTX to cover his potential losses because the tick value of each Digitex futures contract is one DGTX token.

The owner of DGTX tokens can engage in the buying and selling of liquid futures on the price of the Bitcoin against the USD, Ethereum against the USD, and Litecoin against the USD. Due to the commission-free framework of Digitex, the more active the trader is, the higher the intrinsic value of each DGTX token he has because he is saving the commissions than any other platform would have charged on him for doing the exact same trade.

Let's summarize the key aspects of the DGTX token



DGTX will be the native currency of Digitex The tick value of each Digitex futures is one DGTX
Traders' margin requirements will be covered with their DGTX Account balances are denominated in DGTX tokens
DGTX minting will cover for Digitex operational costs The initial supply will be 1 billion of DGTX tokens. The funds risen in the ICO will cover the costs of Digitex for the first 2 years of operation.
Integration with swap.tech ,0xproject, and bancor.com enables free tradeability of DGTX with BTC, ETH, and other major Cryptocurrencies Traders can eliminate DGTX price risk thanks to DGTX peg system.


Price risk is no longer a burden for traders thanks to DGTX peg system


Hedging is a basic strategy in stock markets to protect portfolios and reduce the negative effects that negative market movements may have on traders investments. Traders that hedge risk on their physical holdings of the underlying instrument (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or any other cryptocurrency) cannot tolerate DGTX token's price affecting their positions.


To protect traders from DGTX price volatility, Digitex Futures Exchange has futures contracts on the price of DGTX that allows traders to lock in their tokens and sell them at current market prices. This great tool allows traders to keep possession of their DGTX tokens to cover their margins and keep trading on the Digitex futures market. The downside of this strategy is that traders will not earn the profit if the DGTX rises because of the tokens being locked at a lower price.

As with any other future contract, the trader has to deposit a margin payment in the currency to which he is pegging the value of DGTX to cover his potential loses on the trade. Because the trader is protecting himself against DGTX price risk, another currency has to be employed to cover margin payments. ETH deposits are handled into an independent account balance smart contract and BTC deposits are converted into RSK and deposited into a separated Account Balance Smart Contract (RSK is a Turing complete sidechain of the bitcoin network).

DGTX token availability


If DGTX token will be the fuel of a high volume and very liquid futures market, it has to be readily available and as frictionless as possible. Some traders may be happy to hold DGTX for the long term, but most traders will buy DGTX tokens only when needed and convert them back to other cryptocurrencies as soon as their positions are closed.


To properly address this situation, Digitex Futures Exchange will integrate 0xproject into its platform. Besides, 20% of the proceeds from token sales will be used to create a liquid market of DGTX tokens to ensure that a enough offers can sustain the expected high bid levels.

Traders on the Digitex Futures Exchange are expected to buy DGTX at the start of each trading session, use the DGTX peg-system to lock in their sale price and convert them into the original cryptocurrency a few hours later when the trading session ends. This workflow will ensure a massive volume of DGTX traffic that will benefit greatly in the long term.

DGTX token supply and distribution



DGTX token issuance model and price projections


DGTX token creation events will occur via a fully auditable Smart Contract, a transparent review of DGTX token supply and event creations will be always available. Digitex team build price projections over these basic assumptions:
  • 2% of traders are whales who buy a total of $150,000 USD worth of DGTX tokens over a 2 year period.
  • 10% of traders are medium-sized traders who buy a total of $15,000 uSD worth od DGTX tokens over a 2 year period
  • 88% of traders are small traders who buy a total of $1,500 USD worth od DGTX tokens over a 2 year period
Quotation source: Digitex white paper page 7-8



Source: Digitex white paper page 8
This is an oversimplified model that doesn't take into account the overall trend in the crypto market. If the market turns bullish the rise in DGTX prices will be more than expected, but if the market is too bearish, the expectations may not be fulfilled even if the right number of traders is reached. Despite all that, the general trend can be depicted in this chart. Moreover, taking into account that BTC has lost more than 60% of his value in 2018, DGTX stands as the 3rd bigger gainer according to coinmarketcap. You can tell from the graph below that investors are excited about the approaching kickstart date.


Source: Coinmarketcap

DGTX token inflation projections


After January 2021, the next 12 months of the operational cost will be covered through the minting of new DGTX tokens. Here we can see a table with the expected effect of the inflation on the value of each DGTX token:


Source: Digitex white paper page 9
The worst case scenario guarantees that if only 1,000 new trader registers during the first 2 years and DGTX price remain stagnant, only 5% of inflation is required to maintain the operational costs for the next 12 months. The effect of 5% inflation over the 0.02% price is negligible. Also, if the best case scenario is met, only 2.3% of inflation will be required to sustain the platform and its effect on the project price will be only of 1 cent per DGTX token. If the project reaches this stage, securing 12 months of development and more marketing will attract thousands more of traders that will increase the demand for DGTX outweighing the inflationary cost of creating that demand. You can tell that their projections might have been too conservative, in September 2018 we got an announcement about their waitlist reaching 100K signups...no wonder why their CEO seems so happy.



Digitex hybrid trustless futures trade platform


Digitex have adopted a smart combination of the best features obtained with centralized matching engines and trustless, decentralized Smart Contracts to held account balances. In the wild future trading pits, each second matters, thus its mandatory to have a system with the smallest latency levels. Also, privacy is required to prevent frontrunners to exploit big orders. Many other desirable characteristics aren't yet available onto on-chain platforms and are only reached on centralized dedicated servers such as margin trading tools, scalability, and high privacy. Therefore, a hybrid model that covers current on-chain shortcomings and have none of the centralized ill-practicing is the smartest approach to leverage this new business model.

Digitex. The oracle for the account balance smart contract



Digitex acts as an Oracle that updates the decentralized Smart Contract that holds traders' account balances. When a trader requests a withdrawal of DGTX tokens, the Smart Contract requests an update to Digitex about the trader's profit and losses, as well as his current margin liabilities on his current matched and unmatched orders. Thus, the Smart Contract can update its available withdraw balance for that trader.

The potential attack vector from the communication of the exchange with the Smart Contract will be prevented by calculating from scratch traders' profit and loss from their matched trades whenever the smart contract asks for an update to a trader's account balance. Thus, a hacker who has somehow gained access to the exchange, will not be able to create the fake matched trades (which needs a counter-party and timestamps) and alter the account's balance of any trader.

How is this hybrid model more beneficial for traders activity


Digitex is unable to freeze or to seize any trader's fund for whatever reason. Pressure from outside authorities, KYC/AML regulators cannot enforce any legal action against the exchange since it actually can't reach trader's funds. Also, Digitex doesn't have access to the private keys of any trader, thus trader's funds cannot be accessed or mismanaged for the exchange.


Final Thoughts


Digitex benefits are of great significance for everyday traders, a commission-free platform will be a substantial improvement on the profit earned in many portfolios. Also, decentralized account balances and the centralized matching engine provides the best of the decentralized blockchain security and the centralized services reliability. The expected latency time for order matching is within the millisecond's scale, also, full privacy and no front-running is expected.

From the traders business perspective, Digitex single tick trading strategies are available for the first time within the crypto ecosystem, this parallel with the market makers will greatly boost market liquidity.

A Steemit blogger use case


From the starting date of the Steemit platform, some bloggers have earned $100K worth of crypto. They have been really excited about crypto for two years, and they think it is time to jump in the futures market. They search for traditional options like BitMEX, GDAX, CryptoFacilities, and some others, but they discourage themselves when they discover that the high volume low margin strategy they have been carefully studied for the last two years is unpracticable on the traditional platforms.

They are frustrated and return to read some posts on Steemit while scrolling the trending page they read about a new futures market platform on a post of the well-known @originalworks account, they read some of the best entries of the weekly contest and they can't stop the big smile that is printed on their faces. Right from the very same source of their first crypto assets, also they get the tool that will provide them the opportunity for testing all the knowledge gathered for the last 2 years. With Digitex they will enter the world of derivatives and start their venture as crypto traders.

Additional Information about the project


Here is Digitex Roadmap



Meet Digitex team



Watch the Digitex exchange on action with their CEO Adam Todd


https://youtu.be/qxqyspMiPGg

Are you excited with the project and want even more information? Visit their social media channels



Digitex Website
  • Digitex WhitePaper
  • Digitex Telegram
  • Digitex Reddit
  • Digitex Twitter
  • Digitex Blog
  • Digitex Youtube
  • Digitex Facebook




  • Hope you have enjoyed the reading. Keep in touch for more information about great crypto projects.
    Ethereum address: 0x0ebcB37223F07B1Bd0765E70f940046D504743a5 Steemit account: https://steemit.com/@joelsegovia

    submitted by joelsegovia to u/joelsegovia [link] [comments]

    [USA-CO][H]ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 (LGA 1366) EVGA SR-X (dual socket 2011), GPU's, CPU's, ram, ssd's, psu's, monitors, 64bit phone case/mini computer [W]Paypal, Bitcoin, Cash, Trades,

    well I got some stuff to sell, shipping included unless local only (80023 broomfield co), prices obo but I may not budge much depending on the item. Bitcoin preferred. Minimum order $40.
    _
    if your looking for something feel free to shoot me a pm I have alot that isnt listed and get alot week by week.
    _
    -----wanted-----
    paypal
    local cash
    bitcoin, ether, zcash
    TRADES (will only consider if it is a trade or great deal as my budget is short till I sell more)
    _
    Timestamps/Pics-http://imgur.com/a/xZ2KG http://imgur.com/a/z9Ddx
    _
    Items Description Price
    ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 LGA 1366 I believe this board supports xeons $118+shipping for the board, $138+shipping for the board +I7 920
    Emu 1212M PCI 24-Bit/192kHz Balanced Interface Mastering-grade 24-bit, 192kHz converters. Flexible connectivity. E-DSP 32-bit Multi-effects Processor. $42+shipping
    R9 270x replaced fan with 80mm delta. stays extremely cool and isn't overwhelmingly loud $62+shipping
    Saphire 7970 same as 280x $80+shipping
    Amd Firepro S7000 -AS IS- Long text :P $70+shipping
    EVGA SR-X Motherboard Long text :P Please no post craping on this item unless you can find a cheaper one online in stock
    EMC 200GB ENTERPRISE 2.5" SSD HUSSL4020ASS600 would like to keep until i sell the sr-x as its a important part of my main rig. $150
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 2G dat good ram for all your ram needs $7
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 4G dat good ram for all your ram needs $10
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 8G dat good ram for all your ram needs $15
    64bit phone case+a phone/pico atx computer Long text :P $175+shipping
    Xeon L5520 socket 1366 ... $5
    _
    LOCAL ONLY (unless buyer pays shipping)
    _
    LOCAL ONLY Description Price
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, pixel perfect, minimal back-light bleed $150
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, small spot of dead pixels, medium back-light bleed $90
    lg 920p monitor (details on request) $40
    Loaded dell r900 server 4p 2.8ghz?, 64 gigs ram, dual 1kw+ psu's, raid card, 5x 10k sas disks $150
    Close to barebone dell r900 server no cpu's, 48 gigs ram, 1kw+ psu, 5x 10k sas disks $80
    2x Cisco Pwr-rps2300 Redundant Power system each includes 2 1150 watt power supplys $40 each $60 for two
    ?dell 2850? (has been lying around for abit, failed raid sold as is because of that) $40
    corsair cx 550m simi-modular $40
    corsair ax 750 modular $65
    corsair hx 750 simi-modular $60
    evga 600b simi-modular $40
    all of the psu's cx 550m, ax 750, hx 750, 600b $180
    Sold Items Alienware m17x r4- sold
    ASUS HD 7850- sold
    Ballistix Sport 8GB Kit 4GBx2 DDR3- sold
    gtx 760- sold
    ASUS Z87-A- sold
    i7 4770k- sold
    MSI Eclipse Plus X58 LGA 1366 motherboard- sold
    1x 7850-sold
    2x evga gtx 980ti-sold
    NIB Intel 5820k-sold
    gigabyte gtx 960-sold
    EVGA gtx 750 ti-sold
    asus gtx 770-sold
    r9 280x-sold
    r9 280-sold
    hd 7970-sold
    hd 7950-sold
    zotac gtx 980ti-sold
    1 vizio m321i a2 monitor-sold
    Some BTC-sold
    submitted by cdabc123 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    [USA-CO][H]SR-X mobo, GPU's, CPU's, motherboards, ram, ssd's, psu's, monitors, 64bit phone case/mini computer [W]Paypal, Bitcoin, Cash, Trades

    well I got some stuff to sell, shipping included unless local only (80023 broomfield co), prices obo but I may not budge much depending on the item. Bitcoin preferred. Minimum order $40.
    _
    -----wanted-----
    paypal
    local cash
    bitcoin, ether, zcash
    TRADES (will only consider if it is a trade or great deal as my budget is short till I sell more)
    _
    Timestamps/Pics-http://imgur.com/a/JUNyl
    _
    Items (shipping included) Description Price
    R9 270x replaced fan with 80mm delta. stays extremely cool and isn't overwhelmingly load $75
    Amd Firepro S7000 -AS IS- Long text :P $80
    EVGA SR-X Motherboard Long text :P Please no post craping on this item unless you can find a cheaper one online in stock
    EMC 200GB ENTERPRISE 2.5" SSD HUSSL4020ASS600 would like to keep until i sell the sr-x as its a important part of my main rig. $150
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 2G dat good ram for all your ram needs $7
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 4G dat good ram for all your ram needs $10
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 8G dat good ram for all your ram needs $15
    64bit phone case+a phone/pico atx computer Long text :P $200
    Xeon L5520 socket 1366 ... $5
    _
    LOCAL ONLY (unless buyer pays shipping)
    _
    LOCAL ONLY Description Price
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, pixel perfect, minimal back-light bleed $150
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, small spot of dead pixels, medium back-light bleed $90
    lg 920p monitor (details on request) $40
    Loaded dell r900 server 4p 2.8ghz?, 64 gigs ram, dual 1kw+ psu's, raid card, 5x 10k sas disks $150
    Close to barebone dell r900 server no cpu's, 48 gigs ram, 1kw+ psu, 5x 10k sas disks $80
    2x Cisco Pwr-rps2300 Redundant Power system each includes 2 1150 watt power supplys $40 each $60 for two
    ?dell 2850? (has been lying around for abit, failed raid sold as is because of that) $40
    corsair cx 550m simi-modular $40
    corsair ax 750 modular $65
    corsair hx 750 simi-modular $60
    evga 600b simi-modular $40
    Sold Items
    ASUS HD 7850- sold
    Ballistix Sport 8GB Kit 4GBx2 DDR3- sold
    gtx 760- sold
    ASUS Z87-A- sold
    i7 4770k- sold
    MSI Eclipse Plus X58 LGA 1366 motherboard- sold
    1x 7850-sold
    2x evga gtx 980ti-sold
    NIB Intel 5820k-sold
    gigabyte gtx 960-sold
    EVGA gtx 750 ti-sold
    asus gtx 770-sold
    r9 280x-sold
    r9 280-sold
    hd 7970-sold
    hd 7950-sold
    zotac gtx 980ti-sold
    1 vizio m321i a2 monitor-sold
    Some BTC-sold
    submitted by cdabc123 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    [USA-CO][H]ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 (LGA 1366) EVGA SR-X (dual socket 2011), GPU's, CPU's, ram, ssd's, psu's, monitors, 64bit phone case/mini computer [W]Paypal, Bitcoin, Cash, Trades,

    well I got some stuff to sell, shipping included unless local only (80023 broomfield co), prices obo but I may not budge much depending on the item. Bitcoin preferred. Minimum order $40.
    _
    if your looking for something feel free to shoot me a pm I have alot that isnt listed and get alot week by week.
    _
    -----wanted-----
    paypal
    local cash
    bitcoin, ether, zcash
    TRADES (will only consider if it is a trade or great deal as my budget is short till I sell more)
    _
    Timestamps/Pics-http://imgur.com/a/xZ2KG http://imgur.com/a/z9Ddx
    _
    Items Description Price
    ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 LGA 1366 I believe this board supports xeons $118+shipping for the board, $138+shipping for the board +I7 920
    Emu 1212M PCI 24-Bit/192kHz Balanced Interface Mastering-grade 24-bit, 192kHz converters. Flexible connectivity. E-DSP 32-bit Multi-effects Processor. $42+shipping
    R9 270x replaced fan with 80mm delta. stays extremely cool and isn't overwhelmingly loud $62+shipping
    Saphire 7970 same as 280x $80+shipping
    Amd Firepro S7000 -AS IS- Long text :P $70+shipping
    EVGA SR-X Motherboard Long text :P Please no post craping on this item unless you can find a cheaper one online in stock
    EMC 200GB ENTERPRISE 2.5" SSD HUSSL4020ASS600 would like to keep until i sell the sr-x as its a important part of my main rig. $150
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 2G dat good ram for all your ram needs $7
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 4G dat good ram for all your ram needs $10
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 8G dat good ram for all your ram needs $15
    64bit phone case+a phone/pico atx computer Long text :P $175+shipping
    Xeon L5520 socket 1366 ... $5
    _
    LOCAL ONLY (unless buyer pays shipping)
    _
    LOCAL ONLY Description Price
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, pixel perfect, minimal back-light bleed $150
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, small spot of dead pixels, medium back-light bleed $90
    lg 920p monitor (details on request) $40
    Loaded dell r900 server 4p 2.8ghz?, 64 gigs ram, dual 1kw+ psu's, raid card, 5x 10k sas disks $150
    Close to barebone dell r900 server no cpu's, 48 gigs ram, 1kw+ psu, 5x 10k sas disks $80
    2x Cisco Pwr-rps2300 Redundant Power system each includes 2 1150 watt power supplys $40 each $60 for two
    ?dell 2850? (has been lying around for abit, failed raid sold as is because of that) $40
    corsair cx 550m simi-modular $40
    corsair ax 750 modular $65
    corsair hx 750 simi-modular $60
    evga 600b simi-modular $40
    all of the psu's cx 550m, ax 750, hx 750, 600b $180
    Sold Items Alienware m17x r4- sold
    ASUS HD 7850- sold
    Ballistix Sport 8GB Kit 4GBx2 DDR3- sold
    gtx 760- sold
    ASUS Z87-A- sold
    i7 4770k- sold
    MSI Eclipse Plus X58 LGA 1366 motherboard- sold
    1x 7850-sold
    2x evga gtx 980ti-sold
    NIB Intel 5820k-sold
    gigabyte gtx 960-sold
    EVGA gtx 750 ti-sold
    asus gtx 770-sold
    r9 280x-sold
    r9 280-sold
    hd 7970-sold
    hd 7950-sold
    zotac gtx 980ti-sold
    1 vizio m321i a2 monitor-sold
    Some BTC-sold
    submitted by cdabc123 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    [USA-FL] [H] Dell Proliant DL380 (server - like new - 2 yr warranty), Radeon HD 7770, AMD Athlon II X4 645, Paypal, Bitcoin,[W] Decent monitor, a newer case (needs to fit uATX board), an a3 socket MoBo, gaming peripherals (mouse, keyboard, webcam, microphone) details inside

    HP Proliant DL380 | $150 OBO | 799 originally. is like new. Comes with all 6 drives, ram, fans, both power supplies, and both processors. A link to more information on this rig can be found here although mine is much more upgraded. If you have any questions regarding my specific one, feel free to ask. I don't know servers well but had this brand new one from a past business. it should also be noted this comes with a two year transferrable warranty from company we bought it from, which I will happily transfer
    Pics of server for mods here
    I have the AR drone 2 | 175 OBO |389 originallyin a barely used condition for trade. This is an awesome quadcopter that fly's out of the box and is easily flown using a android or apple device. Read more about this drone here.
    timestamp of the drone for the mods here
    I have also put about 100 dollars worth of after market, highly durable upgrades on to this drone including a nicer altitude sensor, new more endurableand lighter props, gears, shafts, and motors. I am also including 3 extra batteries so giving you a combined 1.5 hours of flight time. Stock one is 1500 MaH, these are 1800 MaH
    I also have a Radeon HD 7770 GPU AMD Athlon II X4 645 CPU | 75 OBO on GPU *| *50 OBO on CPU | I dont remember how much I paid originally on gpu and cpu is OEM. Niether ever used to mine, were OC'd, or abused in any way. I am a gamer. I am willing to trade both, both working as they are in the pc I am using right now.
    timestamp of the parts in hwmonitor for the mods here
    I of course also have the option of bitcoin or paypal depending on the quality of the item you have Now, for what I want:
    Decent Gaming Monitor: I want something with a good refresh rate, depending on the size I would consider different prices / trades.
    Case: I would like something kind of clean looking, pref with a side window. I am thinking something like NZXT or cool master cases. Just let me know what case you have, I am not picky but but do want a side window.
    MOBO: I would like a motherboard (pref uatx) that fits a A3 socket cpu. Gaming Peripherals: Mouse: A Razer deathadder would be preferred but something comparable would be welcomed Keyboard: Something mechanical, like the razer chroma Webcam: prefer a logitech, c920 would be acceptable, i need it for streaming Microphone: Yeti Blue or equivalent. also used for streaming
    edited for easily visibility of items in post
    submitted by io-error to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    [USA-CO][H]SR-X mobo, GPU's, servers, ram, ssd's, psu's, monitors, cpu's, 64bit phone case/mini computer [W]Paypal, Bitcoin, Cash, Amd gpu's

    well I got some stuff to sell, shipping included unless local only (80023 broomfield co), prices obo but I may not budge much depending on the item. Bitcoin preferred. Minimum order $40.
    _
    -----wanted-----
    paypal
    local cash
    bitcoin, ether, zcash
    TRADES (will only consider if it is a trade or great deal as my budget is short till I sell more)
    _
    Timestamps/Pics-http://imgur.com/a/Cuwda
    _
    Items (shipping included) Description Price
    i7 4770k no oc $200
    ASUS Z87-A (never oc'ed light mining) $55
    Ballistix Sport 8GB Kit 4GBx2 DDR3 1600mhz $40
    combo of the above ASUS Z87-A+ $270
    gtx 760 no oc, no mining $65
    ASUS HD 7850 (never oc'ed light mining) $55
    R9 270x replaced fan with 80mm delta. stays extremely cool and isn't overwhelmingly load $75
    Amd Firepro S7000 -AS IS- Long text :P $80
    EVGA SR-X Motherboard Long text :P Please no post craping on this item unless you can find a cheaper one online in stock
    EMC 200GB ENTERPRISE 2.5" SSD HUSSL4020ASS600 would like to keep until i sell the sr-x as its a important part of my main rig. $150
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 2G dat good ram for all your ram needs $7
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 4G dat good ram for all your ram needs $10
    DDR3 ECC reg ram 8G dat good ram for all your ram needs $15
    64bit phone case+a phone/pico atx computer Long text :P $200
    Xeon L5520 socket 1366 ... $5
    _
    LOCAL ONLY (unless buyer pays shipping)
    _
    LOCAL ONLY Description Price
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, pixel perfect, minimal back-light bleed $150
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, small spot of dead pixels, medium back-light bleed $90
    lg 920p monitor (details on request) $40
    Loaded dell r900 server 4p 2.8ghz?, 64 gigs ram, dual 1kw+ psu's, raid card, 5x 10k sas disks $150
    Close to barebone dell r900 server no cpu's, 48 gigs ram, 1kw+ psu, 5x 10k sas disks $80
    2x Cisco Pwr-rps2300 Redundant Power system each includes 2 1150 watt power supplys $40 each $60 for two
    ?dell 2850? (has been lying around for abit, failed raid sold as is because of that) $40
    corsair cx 550m simi-modular $40
    corsair ax 750 modular $65
    corsair hx 750 simi-modular $60
    evga 600b simi-modular $40
    Sold Items
    MSI Eclipse Plus X58 LGA 1366 motherboard- sold
    1x 7850-sold
    2x evga gtx 980ti-sold
    NIB Intel 5820k-sold
    gigabyte gtx 960-sold
    EVGA gtx 750 ti-sold
    asus gtx 770-sold
    r9 280x-sold
    r9 280-sold
    hd 7970-sold
    hd 7950-sold
    zotac gtx 980ti-sold
    1 vizio m321i a2 monitor-sold
    Some BTC-sold
    submitted by cdabc123 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    [USA-CO][H]ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 (LGA 1366) EVGA SR-X (dual socket 2011), GPU's, CPU's, ram, ssd's, psu's, monitors, 64bit phone case/mini computer [W]Paypal, Bitcoin, Cash, Trades,

    well I got some stuff to sell, shipping included unless local only (80023 broomfield co), prices obo but I may not budge much depending on the item. Bitcoin preferred. Minimum order $40.
    _
    if your looking for something feel free to shoot me a pm I have alot that isnt listed and get alot week by week.
    _
    -----wanted-----
    paypal
    local cash
    bitcoin, ether, zcash
    5ghz+ <100w tdp chip for tec build.
    TRADES (will only consider if it is a trade or great deal as my budget is short till I sell more)
    _
    Timestamps/Pics-http://imgur.com/a/eCRzA
    _
    Items Description Price
    i7 3770 non k $160+shipping
    Saphire 7970 same as 280x $80+shipping
    Emu 1212M PCI 24-Bit/192kHz Balanced Interface Mastering-grade 24-bit, 192kHz converters. Flexible connectivity. E-DSP 32-bit Multi-effects Processor. $42+shipping
    Amd Firepro S7000 -AS IS- Long text :P $70+shipping
    ASUS P6T Deluxe V2 LGA 1366 I believe this board supports xeons $130+shipping for the board, $150+shipping for the board +I7 920
    EVGA SR-X Motherboard Long text :P Pending! Please no post craping on this item unless you can find a cheaper one online in stock
    EMC 200GB ENTERPRISE 2.5" SSD HUSSL4020ASS600 would like to keep until i sell the sr-x as its a important part of my main rig. $150
    64bit phone case+a phone/pico atx computer Long text :P $150+shipping
    Xeon L5520 socket 1366 ... $5
    _
    LOCAL ONLY (unless buyer pays shipping)
    _
    LOCAL ONLY Description Price
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, pixel perfect, minimal back-light bleed $120
    vizio m321i a2 monitosmart tv 1080p, 120hz, 32 inch, small spot of dead pixels, medium back-light bleed $70
    lg 920p monitor (details on request) $40
    Close to barebone dell r900 server no cpu's, 48 gigs ram, 1kw+ psu, 5x 10k sas disks $60
    2x Cisco Pwr-rps2300 Redundant Power system each includes 2 1150 watt power supplys $40 each $60 for two
    ?dell 2850? (has been lying around for abit, failed raid sold as is because of that) $40
    corsair cx 550m simi-modular $40
    corsair ax 750 modular $65
    corsair hx 750 simi-modular $60
    evga 600b simi-modular $40
    all of the psu's cx 550m, ax 750, hx 750, 600b $180
    Sold Items
    Loaded dell r900 server-sold
    r9 270x w/ delta fan- sold
    Alienware m17x r4- sold
    ASUS HD 7850- sold
    Ballistix Sport 8GB Kit 4GBx2 DDR3- sold
    gtx 760- sold
    ASUS Z87-A- sold
    i7 4770k- sold
    MSI Eclipse Plus X58 LGA 1366 motherboard- sold
    1x 7850-sold
    2x evga gtx 980ti-sold
    NIB Intel 5820k-sold
    gigabyte gtx 960-sold
    EVGA gtx 750 ti-sold
    asus gtx 770-sold
    r9 280x-sold
    r9 280-sold
    hd 7970-sold
    hd 7950-sold
    zotac gtx 980ti-sold
    1 vizio m321i a2 monitor-sold
    Some BTC-sold
    submitted by cdabc123 to hardwareswap [link] [comments]

    Bitcoin Protocol Explained - Timestamp Server / Global Ledger How to Timestamp a File with Bitcoin How to Mine Bitcoins Using Your Own Computer - YouTube HOW TO BUY BITCOIN 2020 - BEST Ways to Invest In ... The Bitcoin Whitepaper Series - YouTube

    The timestamp server broadcasts a hash, which holds the previously diagrammed transaction records. By broadcasting this hash publicly, the timestamp generated by this public announcement serves as proof that the transaction must have existed then. Each new hash includes the previous hash along with a new block of data, forming a chain where each subsequent timestamp reinforces the one before ... Bitcoin Blockchain Timestamp How Do I Use Bitcoins At A Vendor How To Earn Bitcoin With Reward Apps Bitcoin Blockchain Timestamp Minecraft Bitcoin Casino Anonymous ... The timestamp is used primarily for establishing the difficulty. Without a timestamp, new nodes would not be able to determine the correct difficulty to be used for each 2016 block period as they wouldn't know how long it took to mine those blocks. So that everyone calculates the difficulty correctly, the block timestamps are used instead of ... Total Bitcoin (sum of all currently existing Bitcoin) 18,526,858 BTC: Market Capitalization (market value of all currently existing Bitcoin) $242,892,661,625 USD: Bitcoin Price (Bitcoin price history charts) 1 BTC = $ 13,110.3 USD (2020-10-26 03:01:09 UTC) bitasset: 13,111.27 USD (2020-10-26 03:00:03 UTC) hitbtc: 13,083.62 USD (2020-10-26 03:00 ... Bitcoincharts is the world's leading provider for financial and technical data related to the Bitcoin network. It provides news, markets, price charts and more.

    [index] [41899] [20823] [38255] [51473] [51389] [21728] [48671] [15001] [7975] [42085]

    Bitcoin Protocol Explained - Timestamp Server / Global Ledger

    Explanation video of a simple, free, secure timestamping service which utilizes Bitcoin. The service is provided at cryptostamp.net I created this with PowToon if anyone is curious. I'm doing this ... #Blockchain #Bitcoin #Ethereum. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. HOW TO BUY BITCOIN 2019 - EASY Ways to Invest In Cryptocurrency For Beginners! Get $10 of free Bitcoin when you buy or sell at least $100 of cryptocurrency o... Start trading Bitcoin and cryptocurrency here: http://bit.ly/2Vptr2X IMPORTANT!! This method only illustrates how mining works. You will not make any money f... Bitcoin Whitepaper Series Part 1: Introduction, Transactions, and Timestamp Server by Bitcoin and Beyond. 41:18. Riccardo Casatta - Eternity Wall & OpenTimestamps by Blockchain Roma. 35:33 ...

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